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Full text of "Evaluation of emulsifiers for use in military insecticide formulations"

October 1953 E-866 

LIBRARY 
STATE PLANT BOARD 

United States Department of Agriculture 

Agricultural Research Administration 

Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine 



EVALUATION OF EMULSIFIERS FOR USE IN MILITARY 
INSECTICIDE FORMULATIONS!/ 



By B. I. Sparr and C. V. Bowen 
Division of Insects Affecting Man and Animals 



Military specifications for emulsifiable concentrates of insecticides 
and repellents specify the amount and type of emulsifier to be used, and 
in some of them limit the choice to one or a few specific emulsifiers. 
This limitation is undesirable but has often been necessary when time 
did not permit the screening of available materials for suitability in 
various concentrates. Recently, however, a screening program was 
undertaken at the Orlando, Fla., laboratory of this Bureau to evaluate 
emulsifiers in several standard emulsifiable concentrates. This paper 
presents the results obtained with 101 emulsifiers in the tests for 
emulsion stability as outlined in each specification. 

Formulations for Spray Concentrates 

The emulsifiers were tested for suitability in standard lindane, DDT, 
and delousing (NBIN) spray concentrates. The concentrates used in these 
tests had the following composition: 

Lindane 20, isophorone 40, Velsicol AR-60 32.5, and emulsifier 
7.5 percent (MIL-I-10917 (QMC) 7 February 1951, Amendment 1, 5 June 
1951). 

DDT 25, Velsicol AR-60 67.5, and emulsifier 7.5 percent (MIL-I-10502 
(QMC) 7 September 1950). 

NBIN. DDT 6, benzyl benzoate 68, benzocaine 12, and emulsifier 14 
percent (MIL-I-1909A, 8 January 1952). 

Testing Apparatus 

The tests for lindane and DDT utilize the same apparatus, which is 
described in the specifications as follows: 



1/ This work was conducted under funds allotted by the Department 
of the Army to the Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine. 



n 

■ 

he 

: : 

. 

sts 

tion tests and tl [uirements f ilsion st 

as the;. - folio • 

I . .dane 

"Place 95 ml. of har t5°F. in tl I stir at 

100' * : I'M. Add 5.0 ml. of the emulsion conct 

ue stirring for 1 minute. Pour the ^ion thus formed into 

LOO ml. iss stoppered cylinder, note the time, and set 

aside for exa medial :ter that period examine 

lly under strong trans 5 of 

sep i of phase or sediment and record I atage separ 

if ai lume. Allow the emulsion to stand at the tes 

24 h • . : • • >rm tl: I ing the si 

les. Ex 10 minute 

has b( 
record the results." The emulsion formed should sh< 
ill. of crean Layer oil si 

. 

ui) l 

for- Li I ise 80 ml. of ha i 

aites 

. A 

\ 

i 
■ . 

. A 
luring th( 



-3- 

given three shakes of the above specified type." Although the specifica- 
tions require that the emulsifier in this formulation be nonionic, other 
types were tested to ascertain their suitability. 

The hard water mentioned in these tests is designed to provide a 
hardness of 342 p. p.m., calculated as calcium carbonate, and has the 
following composition: 

Calcium chloride (anhydrous) 0.3037 gram 

Magnesium chloride hexahydrate 1338 gram 

Distilled water to make 1 liter 

Results 

Emulphor EL-620, Emulphor EL-719, and Lindane Emulsifier 2679 
produced satisfactory emulsions with all 3 types of concentrates, 
whereas 18 emulsifiers were satisfactory with 2 and 27 with 1. The 
emulsifiers that were satisfactory in one or more of the concentrates 
are given in table 1. They were not necessarily designed or claimed 
to be effective for use in these concentrates. 

In the lindane concentrates 19 emulsifiers passed specifications. 
Atlox 2081, Emulsifier BCX-70, and Lindane Emulsifier 2679 were 
superior to the others. 

In the DDT concentrates 33 emulsifiers were satisfactory, but 17 
of them produced concentrates that remained cloudy at room temperature 
and might not meet the specifications test for homogeneity. However, 
filtration or the addition of clarifying agents in the manufacturing process 
might eliminate the cloudiness in some of them without affecting their 
emulsive properties. Emulsifier ATX-75, G-2065, Lindane Emulsifier 2679, 
Triton X-150, Triton X-177, and Triton X-188 exhibited superior qualities 
in that the emulsions showed no more than trace quantities of separation 
at the end of 24 hours. 

In the NBIN delousing spray concentrates 20 emulsifiers were 
acceptable. Tergitol Dispersant XC was outstanding, as it showed 
good spontaneity of emulsification and no more than trace quantities of 
cream after standing for 8 hours. 

Four lindane concentrates and one NBIN delousing concentrate gave 
emulsions having gummy or oily cream layers. One DDT and three 
NBIN concentrates made brown emulsions. Although these materials 
meet the specifications for stability, they do not appear to be suited for 
use for the reasons given. 

Although no final conclusions relating chemical structure to emulsive 
properties could be drawn from these tests, similar tests with emulsifiers 
containing polyoxyethylated nonylphenols of different ethylene oxide mole 
ratios indicated that there is an optimum mole ratio for each type of con- 
centrate. As shown in table 2, the optimum average mole ratios are 9.5 
for the lindane, 6 for the DDT, and 15 for the NBIN concentrates. 



I I 

■ • 

d norv. rs of 

an opti: 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2013 



http://archive.org/details/eformaemulOOunit 



Table l.--Emulsii'iers that met the military specifications for stability in one 
or more emulsifiable insecticide concentrates. N= not passed, P = passed, 
S = superior, C = concentrate cloudy 



Name 



Type of emulsifier 



Lindane DDT 



NBIN 



Aerosol OT 

Agent 140-H 
Agent 9421 
Agrimul 11 

Agrimul 25 
Agrimul 60AB 



Alrodyne 9 7 
Alrodyne 315 
Alrodyne G 
Atlox 1255 

Atlox 1256 
Atlox 1266 
Atlox 2081 



Atlox 2085 
Atlox 8916P 

Em col H-50A 

Emcol H-65C 

Emcol H-66 

Emcol H-77 

Emcol H-82 

Emcol H-83 
Emulphor EL-620 
Emulphor EL-719 
Emulsifier 75-H-14-S 
Emulsifier ATX- 75 
Emulsifier BCX-70 



Dioctyl ester of sodium sulfosuccinic 

acid 
Alkylaryl polyoxyethylene glycol ether 

do. 
Blend of nonionic and anionic fatty 

residues 
Aromatic nonionic ether 
Blend of a sulfurated arylalkyl com- 
pound and an amine neutralized 
sulfated residue 
Polyethylene glycol fatty esters 
do. 
do. 
Polyoxyethylene sorbitol esters of 
mixed fatty and resin acids 
do. 
do. 
Blend of an alkylaryl sulfonate and 
polyoxyethylene sorbitol ester of 
mixed fatty and resin acids 
do. 
Polyoxyethylene sorbitan esters of 

mixed fatty and resin acids 
Fatty acid condensation product of a 

polyhydric alcohol 
Blend of polyglycol esters and 

sulfonated oils 
Blend of polyalcohol esters and 

sulfonated oils 
Blend of polyalcohol carboxylic esters 

and sulfonated oils 
Polyalcohol carboxylic esters and 

sulfonated oils 
Nonionic-anionic blend 
Alkyl polyoxyethylene glycol ester 

do. 
Nonionic 

Nonionic-anionic blend 
do. 



p-' 


N 




p 


N 


P, 


c 


N 


N 


P, 


c 


N / 
p 2/ 


N 


P, 


c 


N 


P, 


c: 


N 


N 


P, 


c 


P 


P 


N 




P 


111 


P 




N 


N 




N 


N 


P 




N 


P 


P 




N 


N 


N 




P 


S 


N 




N 


N 


P 




N / 
pi/ 


P 


N 




N 


P, 


c 


p 2/ 


N 


N 




P 


N 


P 




P,C 


P 


P 




N 


N 


P 




N 


N 


P 




N 


P 


P, 


c 


P 


P 


P, 


c 


P 


N 


N 




P 


N 


S 




N 


S 


P, 


c 


N 



. 









I 






: 






S 

... s 

27A 






: . CO 730 

l 850 
I O-880 
Lind mulsifii 

PIuj 



! L-(i4 

: I 

I 

■ 

• 177 



'■ 



. 

S • 1 with polyo • 

nixed 
•y and .ds 

'. i th 
■ : • ■ : 

PS 
Alk - ite 

Alk;. e ethanol 

. 

. 

Blend id am si- 

■s 
Modified . eum sulfon:. 

Condensate of ethylene oxide with 
hydro phol 

l( 
• 

Alk 

er of a 
A 

. 
I 
Alkylaryl hola a 

Alk 



I- I J , 




''- 1 , 




i p 












P, ( s 













1 


N 






N 
N 


N 


p3 






• 






p 









i' 


















■ 

























N 









-7- 



Table 2«--Effect of ethylene oxide mole ratio in ethylene 
oxide -nonylphenol emulsifiers on the stability of lindane, 
DDT, and NBIN emulsifiable concentrates 



Average moles of 
ethylene oxide 


Milliliters 


of cream 


in 1/2 hour 


in emulsifier 


Lindane 


DDT 


NBIN 


4.5 


Broken 


26 


Broken 


6 


do. 


None 


Nonemulsifiat 


9.5 


2+ 


62 


Broken 


15 


6 


32 


38 


20 


6.5 


30 


22 


30 


6 


27 


18 



II I H 



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